For the reason that demise of Greensill Capital threatened to tear Sanjeev Gupta’s enterprise empire aside, the metals magnate has managed to carry it collectively because of a commodities increase and the persistence of Credit score Suisse.
The industrialist over the weekend introduced a restructuring of his Australian operations with the Swiss financial institution, which funnelled greater than $1bn to Gupta by way of its suite of provide chain finance funds tied to Greensill. On the identical time, his UK metals vegetation will obtain £50m in new funding.
The long-awaited offers are important for GFG Alliance, the ragbag assortment of metals vegetation Gupta paid for with greater than $5bn of loans from Greensill. However seven months on from the latter’s failure, the largest menace to Gupta holding his empire intact has sprung from an unlikely supply.
A gaggle of executives from American Industrial Companions, a little-known personal fairness agency with a nostril for worth, final week arrived at Gupta’s aluminium smelter in Dunkirk on the northern coast of France.
Dino Cusumano, Danny Davis, Zac Carson and Max Holmes had a easy message for the roughly 100 staff gathered on the smelter considered the crown jewel of Gupta’s European enterprise: the US buyout agency was now in cost.
For AIP, which usually scours the unloved corners of America’s industrial financial system for takeover targets, taking management of Europe’s largest aluminium smelter can be a coup. For Gupta, the lack of the positioning can be a critical blow, robbing his empire of an important supply of earnings with the steel buying and selling at its highest stage since 2007.
Gupta responded with a menace of authorized motion, saying AIP’s rivalry that his firm had defaulted on its money owed to the personal fairness agency was “incorrect” and that AIP was attempting to purchase the enterprise “on a budget”.
New York-based AIP started shopping for up the money owed of the smelter and GFG’s aluminium mill in Duffel, outdoors Antwerp, in April, only a month after Greensill filed for administration.
“Lots of people would have been within the asset, however the issue was that it wasn’t on the market,” stated a senior determine at France’s economics ministry, whose approval is required because the Dunkirk smelter is deemed a “strategic asset”.
AIP “had been fast, and able to pay 100 per cent of the value of the debt to take management”, the particular person stated. “We had no objection.”
GFG was a gorgeous goal for AIP. Troubles at Gupta’s enterprise deepened in Might when the UK’s Severe Fraud Workplace stated it was investigating suspected fraud and cash laundering at GFG. The group has denied wrongdoing.
Based on its web site, AIP takes inspiration from Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Ebook. A web page with particulars of its crew — displaying that 30 of its 32 companions are male — is headlined: “The energy of the wolf is the pack, and the energy of the pack is the wolf,” a reference to the 1894 story assortment, by which the clauses are the opposite manner spherical.
With an investor base spanning Essex county council’s pension fund within the UK to Alaska’s sovereign wealth fund, AIP’s crew of ex-bankers and former industrial executives has gathered companies throughout the US.
AIP’s corporations promote all the things from tyres and wooden flooring to nappies. It agreed final month to purchase the defence big Raytheon’s defence coaching unit.
It’s a “value-oriented” agency that buys corporations it hopes to “rework . . . to be extra enticing”, Alyssa Fiore, an funding officer at a Massachusetts pension group, stated at a gathering the place she proposed a $75m dedication to its fund in 2019, in all probability reflecting the pitch the buyout group makes to buyers.
In personal fairness, “everybody says [their own firm is] operationally-focused, however AIP has extra credibility than most once they say that”, stated one govt whose agency invested in AIP. “They search for conditions the place there’s complexity” moderately than shopping for “straightforward corporations which have already been scrubbed off” by different buyout teams.
With about $7bn below administration, it’s a minnow in contrast with the business’s best-known names resembling Blackstone and KKR.
A $406m fund that AIP raised in 2007 was within the prime quartile for efficiency, amongst friends, based on the information supplier PitchBook. However its three newer funds are much less spectacular, rating within the third or fourth quartile.
Nonetheless, Aberdeen Customary Investments, whose Customary Life personal fairness belief dedicated £15m to the fund, described AIP in a 2019 report as a “greatest in school” buyouts group.
AIP had crossed paths with GFG earlier than the conflict over the Dunkirk plant. Their connection has its roots within the 2018 takeover of the aluminium firm Aleris by metals provider Novelis in a $2.6bn deal.
Competitors regulators pressured the merged enterprise to promote two Aleris vegetation — one in Duffel, which Gupta purchased, and one in Lewisport, Kentucky, which AIP acquired and renamed Commonwealth Rolled Merchandise.
That connection paved the way in which for GFG to strategy AIP a few sale of the Duffel plant within the speedy aftermath of Greensill’s failure, three folks with data of the matter stated. Gupta in the end signed preliminary agreements to promote each Duffel and the Dunkirk plant to the personal fairness group, together with an settlement on worth, the folks stated.
The talks fell aside by July this yr, nevertheless. By then, Gupta was in discussions with Glencore about another deal that might have enabled him to remain in charge of his European aluminium enterprise. GFG later stated the AIP talks fell aside due to the “gross under-market valuation AIP placed on the enterprise”.
Jay Hambro, GFG’s chief funding officer and considered one of Gupta’s most loyal lieutenants, had backed the AIP proposal, laying the groundwork for a conflict together with his boss. Hambro is now on gardening depart, based on two folks accustomed to the matter. Hambro declined to remark.
As Gupta held talks with Glencore, AIP purchased a second chunk of the Dunkirk plant’s debt, this time from BlackRock — which might later allow it to foreclose on the shares of the French firm that owns the smelter.
However even with a booming aluminium market, AIP will face challenges at Dunkirk, which employs about 630 folks and produces 280,000 tonnes of the light-weight steel annually.
“What issues to us, as workers, is that AIP doesn’t come to pump all our income,” stated Pascal David, head of the CFE-CGC union on the smelter. “We all know how [private equity funds] work, their intention is to provide income to their buyers.”
AIP executives informed employees that each one jobs and contracts can be stored.
The buyout agency is just not a stranger to the controversy that may include struggling corporations. In 2017, it prevented a steep decline within the worth of US vitality tools producer Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises, promoting its 10 per cent stake again to the corporate shortly earlier than issues at its renewable unit had been disclosed, courtroom filings from Babcock shareholders declare.
AIP obtained what one aggrieved shareholder described in a lawsuit as an “artificially inflated” worth on the sale of the stake. The buyout agency secured an extra sweetener by offering $176m in emergency lending to the corporate at a tidy 10 per cent rate of interest.
AIP was by no means accused of any wrongdoing, and was not the goal of the lawsuit. Babcock shareholders obtained a $19.5m settlement in trade for dropping their claims in opposition to the corporate. AIP declined to remark. Babcock declined to remark.
Just like the takeover of the Dunkirk smelter, the Babcock funding concerned AIP’s Lightship affiliate, which runs its lending actions. The identical unit purchased Rand Logistics, a New Jersey-based delivery enterprise, in a debt-for-equity swap in 2017 and later offered a stake to credit score investor Oaktree.
As soon as dubbed Britain’s “saviour of metal”, Gupta final month celebrated his fiftieth birthday in lavish fashion on the Greek island of Mykonos. Amid final weekend’s euphoria over the Australian deal, AIP’s intervention is a sobering reminder of the challenges Gupta nonetheless faces.
Further reporting by Owen Walker in London